Mists And Mellow Fruitfulness

J and I love this time of year – the temperature is perfect, it rains, the sun shines, the shades of green and brown are gorgeous as leaves fall and plants of every sort grow – thrusting their way through barren layers of summer and out into the sparkle of spring. The smells of leaf-mould and mushrooms and damp, rich soil – the twittering of ‘garden’ birds and the calls of buzzards and ravens. Everywhere you look and listen and sniff, stuff is happening. There is new energy – from Mother Nature and from us!

An old friend has returned after a summer spent gadding about the forest chasing food and the ladies – now he just craves a bit of peace and quiet and his place in the sun . .

Tawney Owl

. . Owl is home again for the ‘winter’.

J is composting furiously as the pruning mounts up ready for the macerating machine . .

macerating machine

compost bins

hot compost heaps

. . and ‘Yes, they really do get that hot!’ I’ve poached eggs in the compost heap before now, if you don’t believe me go here and check it out.

The colours of autumn are a delight to the eye and often it is the smallest of things that make the biggest impression – ‘suns’ glow . .

autumn colours

. . and ‘stars’ twinkle . .

autumn berries

Common Copper

. . and a Common Copper glows in the sun.

There was even time and energy for a bit of ‘reverse lens’ macro photography fun . .

Huntsman Spider macro

. . staring down a Huntsman Spider

Finally, this being our so-called autumn, here are a couple of aptly-named flowers from this time of year – both are so delicate and beautiful and so worth taking a few moments to pause and enjoy.

Scilla autumnalis Autumn Squill

Scilla autumnalis – Autumn Squill

Spiranthes spiralis - Autumn Lady's Tresses

Spiranthes spiralis – Autumn Lady’s Tresses

Spiranthes spiralis - Autumn Lady's Tresses

This orchid is such a tiny thing, so easy to miss and yet close up the flowers appear to be made of crystalised sugar . .

Spiranthes spiralis - Autumn Lady's Tresses

With the exception of the red berries, all the machines, creatures (human and non-human) and plants live in and around my garden!

Autumn. It surely is the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness.

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü

It Never Rains . .

‘Oh, shut up you boring old fart!’ said J not long ago in response to a very modest bit of pedantry from me. ‘£$<% off yourself my Little Nest of Vipers!’ retorted I. Such can be the level of discourse after a day shut indoors by torrential downpours. We get ‘stir-crazy’! Do not be distressed dear reader, there is usually a twinkle in the eye behind the venom. Plus, if Wikipedia is to be believed (and I do), ‘boring old fart’  is often used as a colloquial term of endearment and so I choose to give J the benefit of the doubt(s). Especially if she hasn’t been able to tend her compost heaps for a few hours!

john major

John Major – a Boffer of distinction

Anyway, with our area enjoying the second highest rainfall in Turkey after the Black Sea region, torrential rain is fairly normal here. Wikipedia, and others who copy and paste these things, give us an average of 48 and a half inches during the winter months. Four feet give or take half an inch. Let me tell you, it’s more like five to six feet – just go ask those who chose to build their houses down on Okçular’s flood plain!

So, first it rains . .

Okcular rain storm

Okcular rain

Okcular rainfall

. . and the fields look like this:

black lake3

. . and then the sun comes out and it looks like this:

black lake2

No wonder, regardless of the weather, our neighbours always smile and say ‘Okçular, çok güzel!’ (chok gewzel) – ‘Okçular is very beautiful!’

black lake5

Damn right! Have you seen my Fred Astaire impersonation? Or was it Gene Kelly?

gene kelly

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü

The Archers

The Archers, as in The Archers, is not ‘an everyday story of country folk’! Let me explain – Hurriyet Daily News recently published some terrific photos of young Turks keeping alive their traditional skills as archers on horseback. These Archers are probably the best light cavalry the world has ever seen! My village being called Okçular in Turkish or Archers in English and this blog being ‘Archers of Okçular’ why wouldn’t I be fascinated?

turkish horse archer1

both images Hurriyet Daily News

turkish mounted archer7

Skills that greased the explosive expansion of the Mongol Empire that by 1279 CE had it hammering on the doors of Western Europe. The storm troopers of this empire were the highly mobile and deadly efficient mounted bowmen with their small (by European and Chinese or Japanese standards), extremely powerful, recurved, laminated bows.

These images instantly transported me back in time to the Army Museum in Istanbul where I first saw the amazing craftsmanship that goes into the Turkish bow and began to get some inkling of how it delivers such terrific striking power to the arrow that it would penetrate European style plate-armour and have much-vaunted European armies fleeing the field of battle in total disarray.

composite bows and thumb rings

showing the lamination and final lacquering together with two thumb-rings

bow2another beautiful example

What also flashed into my mind’s eye was meeting the national champion archer of Mongolia and her husband and child on a visit to that country a few years ago. They were both using traditional recurved composite bows not dissimilar to those the Turkic archers used to aid Genghis Khan in his empire-building.

mongolian national archery champion

National Champion of Mongolia

mongolian archer

and her husband – also a champion

mongolian child archer

future champion

They were kind enough to let a few of us tourists have a go and so I promptly stepped up. I well remember the embarrassment when I failed to draw his heavy bow more than a few inches! His wife offered me the lighter bow that she was using and with much huffing and puffing I managed to flight the arrow about 15 feet and strip the skin off the inside of my arm! I realise that technique counts for a lot in archery, but so does a back like a barn door full of muscle tissue! That was when I realised just how powerful the Mongolian-Turkish laminated bow really was. By way of comparison with my 15 feet, in a 1910 archery contest held on the beach at Le Touquet, France, a chap by the name of Ingo Simon was able to shoot an arrow 434 mts using an old Turkish composite bow! Heavier Ottoman flight bows have reached distances of around 900 mts.

Back to the Ottoman archers’ ability to penetrate the plate-armour much favoured by European armies – with a direct, head-on strike the arrow would penetrate plate and heavy padding but if the plate was curved or angled away then the arrow would likely glance-off. To overcome this the Ottoman horse archer or Sipahi would affix a small ball of bee’s wax to the tip of the arrow. This would prevent the arrow glancing-off and concentrate all of the kinetic energy at one point – in many ways similar to the principle of the modern HEAT (High Explosive Anti Tank) round. The effects of a needle-sharp war arrow head weighing between a quarter and half a pound travelling at speeds in excess of 200mph can be imagined. That said, the mounted archer’s target was often the enemy’s horse as a heavily armoured fighter brought to ground would be near helpless against massed infantry.

ottoman horse archer at speed

Ottoman mounted archer at full speed

arrows3 arrowsdetail1










Ottoman arrowheads and fletching

The Turkish bow is a recurved composite bow that was brought to perfection in the time of the Ottoman Empire. The construction is similar to that of other classic Asiatic composite bows, with a wooden core (maple was most desirable), animal horn on the belly (the side facing the archer), and sinew on the front, with the layers secured together with Animal glue. However, several features of the Turkish bow are distinct. The curvature tends to be more extreme when the bow is unstrung, with the limbs curling forward into the shape of the letter “C”. With some bows, the rigid tips of the limbs (“kasan”) even touch. The grip area is not recessed like other Asiatic bows and is fairly flat on the belly, while the front of the grip bulges outwards.

comp bowThe dramatic curvature of the bows makes stringing them very different from straighter bows found in Europe. There is an old saying in Turkey that there are “120 ways to string a bow,” though the most common methods involve sitting on the ground with one’s feet pressed against the grip. Heavier bows usually require the use of a long, looped strap called a “kemend” to pull the limbs back and hold them while the string is seated. Seasoning aside, these bows took more than a year to construct with much ‘resting’ between each lamination. Arrows would need even longer with seasoning and drying taking more than five years.

mongol-bow diagram

Ottoman, Persian, and other Asiatic archers who all followed similar traditions would also extend the power of their weaponry by using a device called a majra or a siper. These devices are used to draw arrows past the bow’s front limb where the arrow would normally rest. The siper is a type of shelf strapped to the archer’s bow hand, which allows the archer to pull the bow back to extreme lengths in order to get the maximum amount of force behind the arrow. They are most commonly used to achieve the greatest distance.


The Majra is a thin piece of wood with a channel cut in it and small loop for the archer’s draw hand. The device allows the archer to pull back arrows that are much shorter than were intended for the bow. It is believed that this device was designed to shoot arrows that were too short for the enemy to pick up and shoot back, or it may have been a way to reuse bolts fired from crossbows.

Turkish archer with bow and majra

Finally, there are the Zihgir or thumb-rings used by Mongol and Ottoman archers to draw and release the bowstring. Ottoman Sipahi were recruited exclusively from free-born Turks. They always fought on the flanks of the army with the Janissaries in the centre and were considered an elite that, unlike the Janissaries, never had their loyalty brought into question. The Zihgir was recognised as the mark or symbol of great distinction, rather like a masonic ring, and the horse-archer would tend to wear it at all times. Such was the prestige associated with it that it developed into a fashion statement and eventually some became so ornate that they were incapable of serving their original purpose.

thumb ringsTo cap things off, here’s Genghis Khan from the exhibition of the same name


Alan Fenn, Okçular (Archers) Köyü (Village)


Chance can be a fine thing! Chance can open doors that introduce new and different people and perspectives. Chance can lead to pleasant walks in pleasant company.

Chance . . . J and I were walking the ‘Dogs‘ a few weeks back and had taken a tea-break at the delightful Nomad Museum and çayevi (tea house) in Çandır a small village at the back of Kaunos historic site. By chance there was a couple there at the same time and by chance we struck up a conversation and by even greater chance they happened to have both copies of my walking-cum-guide books. We had a very enjoyable chat and then, refreshed and fortified, we went our different ways.

nomand museum tea shop

there they are, lurking in the background

A few days later, by chance, we came across these guys again wandering along the track towards our house and so we invited them in for coffee and more chat. I suspect we wasted a lot of their walking time but, as they were really nice folks we invited them to join us on a walk around Sandras Yaylı Köyü (Sandras Mountain Village), the Yuvarlakçay River valley and a late lunch at our favourite restaurant Derin Vadi. It was a chance for them to experience the countryside away from the madding, touristic crowds.

As most of you know, I’m not much of a one for photos of people so you and they will have to make do with a few of my portraits taken whilst in their company:

wolf spider and young

a very beautiful seven-legged wolf spider with her young

wolf spider with young

euphorbia or spurge hawkmoth caterpillerEuphorbia or Spurge Hawkmoth caterpillar and the adult

Spurge Hawkmoth

spurge hawk caterpillar

bucolic scene

village life

Common Darter Sympetrum striolatumCommon Darter – Sympetrum striolatum

Red-horned poppy

finally, a handsome Red-horned poppy – Glaucium corniculatum

There was plenty of other stuff, but you know how it is with these things, so much time is spent chatting away and exchanging views that the chance has been and gone!

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü


Every couple of days, summer and winter, J and I get up early enough to beat the sun and stretch our ageing muscles and creaky joints by pounding the track from our house to a little valley, known locally as Azmandere, just outside our neighbouring village.


There the villagers have created a very pleasant picnic area with tables, benches, platforms and places for a ‘barby’. Many different trees have been planted and water, fit for drinking,  flows year-round. The village holds a very jolly communal picnic each year with live music and much singing and dancing – everyone is made welcome.


The water flowing in the dere/stream is home to the beautiful Epallage fatima – the Odalisque damselfly. In the past I’ve collected DNA samples that have found their way to researchers around the world. Azman really is a little oasis in many ways.

Epallage fatime - Odalisque damselfly in tandem

Epallage fatime – the odalisque Damselfly in tandem (both photos from Azman)

Epallage fatime

The track has many flowery distractions as the seasons flow into each other. Now, as the heat of summer melts away into the gentle welcome of our ‘spring’ the bulbous plants are beginning their version of the Chelsea Flower Show alongside their tougher, heat-tolerant neighbours.

Urginea maritima (Sea Squill) 03_1

Urginea maritima (Sea Squill) 04_1Sea Squill -Urginea maritima

Colchicum variagatum 01_1the stunning Colchicum variegatum



the Chaste Tree – Vitex agnus-castus used for centuries to keep lustful monks in order

Scilla autumnalisAutumn Squill – Scilla autumnalis

Erica sicula

a variety of heather – Erica sicula

europea heliotrope2

amazingly tough European Heliotrope – Heliotropium europaeum


much maligned Stink Aster – Inula viscosa

A few days ago, midst all this beauty, there was an ugly incident; on one of our non-walking days the body of a man was discovered dumped or left beside the rubbish bin on site. It appears that he was stabbed and shot! The investigation is ongoing. Azman is never going to feel quite the same again!


Asman body

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü

Göksel, You Little Beauty!

‘Göksel! Who he?’ I hear you ask in best Private Eye fashion. Göksel is an Okçular boy, a university graduate, he’s reliable, he communicates, speaks reasonable English, turns up when he says he’s going to turn up, he’s in huge demand and he’s our plumber!

Turkish plumber

Göksel at work stripping out the old bathroom

By our plumber I mean he did the original pipework on our house 17 years ago and has dealt with everything that plumbers deal with that I couldn’t handle ever since. Göksel is a real gem!

Now, 17 years doesn’t seem long ago, but back then sit-on toilets were a bit of a novelty around here. Central heating with radiators was something that involved a fair bit of guesswork and the hope that the customer had some sort of idea about rad size as calculations based on B(ritish) T(hermal) U(nit)s were not something that plumbers in rural Turkey gave much thought to! That said, the heating system has kept our place cosy through each winter ever since – we have no complaints.

bathroom Turkey

the ‘old’ hydro bath and tile scheme

So, when we decided to re-vamp my bathroom to get me out of J’s bathroom and make it suitable for my abla/older sister when she visits (the original tiles were dangerous when wet and were a serious mistake), it was to Göksel that we turned making it clear that we wanted him to oversee the whole process.

The timetable went something like this: Thursday evening – phoned Göksel. Friday morning he came to look. Friday 2pm came with tiler to measure up – 2.30 to Ortaca to choose and order tiles, loo, sink, etc. (no payment). Home by 4.30. Sunday evening Göksel phoned to say starting 9am Monday.

Monday 8.30am Göksel and three guys arrive with tractor, trailer, sand, cement, tools. Old loo, bath, sink, radiator out and the jack-hammering begins.

retiling bathroom

rubbish out

jack-hammer in – rubbish out

12.40pm all old tiles, muck, etc over the balcony and into trailer – guys off to lunch. 2pm bit of drilling and new pipe runs. 4pm boxes of new tiles, new loo, sink, shower fittings, etc. delivered. Recessed cistern fitted.

recessed cistern

5pm tractor and trailer with rubbish gone – electrician due in 30 mins. Göksel will be back in the morning. Possible rain so all gear stashed in my workshop – most impressed!

Tuesday 9am three plasterers arrived – worked all day – a bit messy but cleaned up and even washed down the yard – even more impressed! Everything ready for the tiling usta/craftsman to start tomorrow.

Wednesday 8.30am two tilers arrived and started right away – hosepipe up the stairs – silly to worry! Worked solidly all day with delays caused by power cuts – left at 7pm and will return tomorrow to finish off.

new tiling

new tiling2

Thursday tilers finished and gone by 1pm.

Friday 8.30am Göksel and two other plumbers arrive and start fitting everything. Electrician fits new lights etc. and architrave guys arrive to do their bit – all going on at the same time! Meanwhile, at 10.30 the tractor and trailer arrived from the builder’s supplies and started to load up the sand and cement that was excess to requirements and he took away all the waste! In the evening the painter arrived to paint the ceiling and architrave.

new bathroom2

new bathroom3

Saturday 9.30am carpenter arrived to fit new architrave around the door. 6pm Göksel arrived to check over the job. Shower screen has not been delivered yet so can’t complete.

Tuesday 5pm two guys arrive and fit the shower screen. Job jobbed!

new shower4

It looks brilliant! Don’t ever try and tell me that you can’t get good workers these days. My miserable photos don’t do justice to the richness of the colour and ‘feel’. Costs: all materials – 5100 lira; labour – 2350 lira – total 7450 lira or about £2000. Thank you Göksel Usta – you really are a ‘Little Beauty’!

Alan Fenn, I’m so happy my skin has gone wrinkly!

Lost In Space

lost in space


What is it with this stuff? I haven’t done anything, changed anything – I haven’t even had malign thoughts about Wordpress in general or any of its bloody widgets or plug-ins in particular – nothing! Suddenly, a couple of days ago replies I made to comments and any responses to that reply have disappeared – vanished into the ether – lost into bloody outer space!

Hours have been wasted, lost from what I have left from my (some would say ‘pre-ordained’) allotted quota! Plug-ins and widgets are the usual culprits to these things so there’s been much deactivating and reactivating, much fiddling with incomprehensible ‘settings’. Nothing resolved the problem – not even shutting everything off apart from security – Hiç, Zilch, even sacrificing even more hair on the altar to F$*&%”!, the god of utter friggin’ frustration, had no effect.

OK! A last, forlorn hope, I’ll change the theme. Hey Presto! everything works again! Or seems to, anyway – so, you tell me if you have any challenges commenting or getting a reply. Meanwhile I’m heading for a darkened room with a bottle of single malt and a straw! As for the ss in Wordpre**, you can read about it here. I’m convinced they’re out to get me!

Alan Fenn, (out there somewhere)

ps for those with an interest in these things, ‘forlorn hope’ is derived from A forlorn hope is a band of soldiers or other combatants chosen to take the leading part in a military operation, such as an assault on a defended position, where the risk of casualties is high – from the Dutch ‘voorloren hoop‘ literally ‘lost troop’.

pps nothing has changed and I have to say I really can’t be bothered to give this any more time – I have had it with WordPress and everything to do with it!


We’ve been on tenterhooks the past few days whilst hosting our dear friends Mark and Jolee (of Senior Dogs fame) and Mark’s brother and his wife. Nothing to do with them directly and everything to do with the amazing ability of our all-encompassing Ortaca Town Council. Everywhere you look they are getting on with stuff!

About a week ago our muhtar (village headman) arrived with a request – the road gang was coming to lay a new road up to the cemetery just behind our house and because the village now has no budget to feed them (new regulations put the entire budget with district councils) he was asking various villagers along the roads being done to help by cooking a meal for the workers. ‘Alright!’ agreed J, ‘How many?’ ‘Ten or fifteen’ said the muhtar. ‘That is going to be interesting’ said J in the biggest understatement I’d heard since George Dubya declared ‘Mission Accomplished!’

iconic photo steelworkers

OK, it’s not Ortaca’s road gang but it is a pretty amazing photo

I thought, ‘Jeez! You must be insane – I mean, how many plates do we have? What’s our biggest pan?’ I kept these thoughts to myself because even hinting that Yorkshire lass of mature years is insane is a life-threatening matter!

village ladies cooking

village catering

A little later, I mentioned that it might be a tough call because we live up here alone whilst our neighbours will be clubbing together and helping each other. Many hands and all that. Why don’t we order in a bunch of take-aways and save ourselves a lot of grief?’ I suggested. Now, I guess that reality had kicked in because J readily agreed. ‘In fact’ she said ‘why not get the Ley Ley Restaurant to sort them out!’ So we did. It was a smart move because if we ever need a little ‘slight of hand’ from the boys in council overalls they will be there to deliver – no problem!

But I’m getting off piste as they say in certain circles. Where was I? Oh, yes! The road.

So, we were worried that whilst we were hosting/guiding our friends that this being Turkey where things don’t happen by stages but all at once with ‘Full Spectrum Dominance’, that we might want to get out and find that the road was closed and full of machines and piles of gravel. As it turned out we were lucky, there were no disruptions and we scraped home by the skin of our teeth. Well, nearly home!

We’d said our goodbyes and had our hugs from our guests and were on our way up our road when we were confronted by this:

new road Ortaca

new road OkcularThe digger broke the main village water pipe but at least there was a nice, ready-made drain-away – and it didn’t take too long to repair the damage and we were soon grinding over the half-filled trench and back home to a welcome beer! Meanwhile, back at the ranch . . .

This morning we were faced with this . . .

new asphalt Okcular

1.5kms of glistening, wet tar to get to the main road. We’re hoping that our bucket of good-will is overflowing and that the gravel trucks and road-roller will be along soon – otherwise we could be stuck here (literally) for days! Help! Is there anybody there?

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü


Sea-nior Dogs Aboard

J and I have had the considerable delight of hosting our dear friends and bloggers supreme Mark and Jolee of Senior Dogs Abroad fame. We originally met these guys because another blogging friend, the esoteric Liz at Slowly By Slowly suggested that we just might get along – how astute of her!

M and J live in Istanbul where they are very acute observers of the Turkish and regional scene and I really do commend their blog to you – apart from anything else it is a pleasure to read well constructed stories in real English like what she is spoke! Anyway, Mark’s brother and his wife are over for a visit and the quartet have been touring their way down the southwestern coastal corner of Turkey taking in the sights and sites. Yesterday they breezed into Okçular and once all the hugging was done and dusted, J and I set about giving them a bit of a taster of retired life in our neck of the woods.

Today has been mostly watery – from the moment we picked them up from their holiday apartment on the river with our favourite captain and his big boat it has been all river, beach, sea, lakes, lagoons and sulphurous hot springs with just a small diversion on foot to explore Caunos and visit the delightful couple who run the Nomad Museum and tea house in Çandır Village.

Dalyan beach Turkey

Sea Dogs wallowing

Dalyan river boat trip

Ship’s Dogs

Wet Dogs Stink Something Awfulwet dogs stink something awful!

I hope they’ve enjoyed it – they certainly give every indication that they have! For J and me it’s been great to have our eyes opened once again through the eyes of others to the beauty that surrounds us. Thanks guys, you made our day and we’re looking forward to tomorrow!

Incidentally, Mark’s brother confided in me that he thought the hot springs were ‘disgusting’ what with the smell of sulphur and the algae floating like scum on the surface. Now, I’d be the first to admit that it looks a bit like they haven’t changed the bathwater since the Romans were here, but it’s all natural and very good for you, so do like your brother, pinch your nose and take your medicine!

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü


The Jolly Boger

Once, long ago, in a galaxy far away J and I bought a fridge-freezer. We rather liked it because it was different, being horizontally rather than vertically inclined – it was neat and it did the decent thing and fitted under the work surface. Being Red Dwarf fans we were also pleased that it didn’t have SMEG’ stuck on the door!

Zanussi side-by-side fridge-freezer

our handy Zanussi DF 35/40 SS

When it was five years old it was packed into a shipping container and, just like us, set off for a new life in Turkey (Pussy the cat, J and I flew out forgoing the pleasures of a maritime passage). That was September 1997.

Now, some things, like people, are suited for warmer climes and some are not. Ten months into its new life, in the midst of the heat of August, the tiny, temperate zone compressor gave up the ghost and crossed over the great divide. We were sad to lose this handy little jobbie but, not yet au fait with the concept of getting things repaired, resigned to seeing it go. We were soon put straight by friend Mehmet who summoned the ‘buz dolabi’ (refrigerator) man.

DL__R600a__Series_Refrigeration_CompressorTwenty minutes later he arrived, sussed what he needed, left and then reappeared with a new compressor and assorted tools and gas cylinders. Within about an hour the job was done. He left, refusing payment until he had returned the next day to check that all was well.

That compressor lasted two years – we called our man back. He quite reasonably pointed out that the design of the machine was not suited to Turkish heat and it needed a bigger compressor. He needed to order it specially from Izmir – two days later the part had been delivered and the job was finished and that compressor has been working ever since. Apart from springing a gas leak from all those tubes at the back, which was also repaired at the local saniye or works area, this twenty two year old bit of kit has worked tirelessly.

In order to assist with the heat generated by this ‘not suited for climate’ fridge-freezer the repair man fitted a little fan to blast air over the heat sink. I later knocked up a bracket and added a second. These fans work far harder than what should be expected of them and so need changing every few years – a simple enough DIY job for me. This time around I found that the plastic tray that sits on top of the compressor and holds the melt-water when the ‘thingy’ auto defrosts had crumbled into dust. This accounted for the pools of water we’ve been periodically mopping up the past few years (I know, I know!).

bodging repairs

two new fans and a custom water tray – neat!

Anyway, J being a bright and practical soul produced a very attractive biscuit tin, circa 1997, and a few snips with the tin snips and a bit of bending with the pliers and ‘Hey, Presto!’ good as new . . well, almost! I’ve decided to keep the lid and turn it into a ‘feature’ to hang on the wall!

biscuit tin

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü

ps I still have the original receipt – how sad is that!

pps I also know that ‘Boger’ is spelt ‘Bodger’ – or the other way around! You may, or may not, know that a ‘Bodger’ is the old name for a chair-maker which I consider a rather skilful occupation undeserving of such denigration.

ppps J has just said that she thinks that you lot out there will think I’m passed my best (sell-by date) for putting up stuff like this which is very depressing!

'burası Türkiye!' – 'this is Turkey!' – living, loving and travelling Turkey


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