Candles In The Wind

The Village Institutes – Köy Enstitütleri

Okcular Village bookIn the book ‘Okçular Village – a Guide‘ there is a section where our Yaşlı Çınarlar, literally ‘Old Plane Trees’ (a local term of affection for our more senior villagers), tell their stories. As one, Şevket Akgün, related his tale he recalled the following: ‘The local education manager then was İzzet Akgül and he said to me, “Şevket, you’re a hardworking student, I’m going to send you to the village institute’’ and I went in 1941 to Kızılçullu for 5 years, winter and summer to study. In the winters we studied, in the summers we learned trades like carpentry, construction, blacksmithing. I graduated in 1946 and in September at 15 years old, I started teaching at Okçular. However, there was no school then.’

The term ‘village institutes’ was intriguing – what were they? Over the years J and I have slowly and not very diligently gathered photographs, together with a little background and history. It is a fascinating and compelling story of vision, social engineering, personal achievement and commitment to an ideal that, within two decades, would have so ruffled the feathers of the establishment that they felt compelled to snuff out the very concept and to discredit the visionary, guiding lights of the movement.

Ataturk teachingRight from the foundation of the Republic, Atatürk recognised that to build a modern, secular society those he described as the ‘true owners’, the villagers, could become the nation’s greatest asset but only if the ‘light of education’ could be passed to them.

By 1935 the process of ‘enlightenment’ was at a standstill with just 5,400 out of 40,000 villages having primary schools. So it was that Atatürk gave his blessing to a scheme that would take the best and brightest of village children, boys and girls, give them the benefits of an additional, broadly based education (initially for six months but expanded in 1940) for a further five years and then have them return to the villages as teachers. The project was passed to İsmail Hakkı Tonguç, an educational visionary, and the Köy Enstitütleri – Village Institutes were born into a world that most of us reading this can scarcely imagine!

student poverty

poverty was endemic across Anatolia – a new student at a Village Institute

The Anatolia of this time had progressed little away from urban centres – electricity, roads and sanitation were virtually unknown. Within the villages literacy was of little value as newspapers were few and far between and radios unheard of. Medical services were unknown or scorned in favour of local folk remedies. In years of drought or semi-drought, when combined with the bitterly cold, harsh winters of Anatolia infant mortality could run at 30-50% of those under 1 year old. The lack of education spawned generation after generation of fatalistic, religiously myopic, compliant villagers who were open to exploitation by corrupt bureaucrats and rogues. Village life was unchanged and unchanging with those showing any spark of intellect discouraged and suppressed under the yoke of drudgery and the fight to survive from one year to the next.

the best and brightest of students

the best and brightest students were gathered

Out of this darkness the Village Institutes gathered together the best and brightest and began an educational process that would transform the perceptions of these students in a way that is difficult to imagine. In addition to the 3Rs the curriculum included history, geography, science, philosophy, practical engineering, welding, sewing skills, tailoring/dressmaking, dance, drama, carpentry, hygiene, animal husbandry, agricultural science, forestry and music. Sport was also encouraged and practised – the list goes on. Not only was the curriculum wide-ranging it was also avowedly secular and directed towards the awakening of social awareness to the injustices and inequalities that comprised the lot of most villagers because of their ignorance and dire circumstances.

secular, logical, scientific teaching

secular, logical, scientific learning

The compassion and desire for change of those who supported and directed the village institutes can be read into every line of this letter sent by Hayri Çakaloz, director of the Ortaklar Village Institute to all newly accepted students:

My dear son/daughter,

You have successfully passed the admission examination and so have qualified to become a student at our Institute.

As I congratulate you for this honourable achievement, I am happy to inform you that our Institute family of more than 400 students awaits you with open arms. I kiss you on your eyes.

After receiving this letter, please make the following preparations:

Get a closely cropped haircut. Wash your hands, feet and entire body as best you can. If your clothes are dirty, please have your mother wash and mend them.

I can’t speak for you, but these kindly and practical words leave me deeply moved. Other directors recall newly admitted students arriving in torn and patched clothing or rags;

children arrive at a Village Institute

many came barefoot; some with bellies swollen from malnutrition; most with tooth cavities and few had ever seen a toilet. What did arrive with them was a narrow, village mind-set. ‘For these children, life was all about cultivating the field, owning a pair of oxen, getting married, worshipping God and preparing for Paradise . . Their recruitment into the Institute shook this vision to its very core.

Each of the eventual 21 Institutes were expected to become self-sufficient; to this end, as new establishments were authorised, the students and staff would be involved in the building process. As time went on they became the ‘sole contractors’ and did it all themselves.

students and staff building a Village Institute in winter

One day, director of Kızılçullu Institute (where Şevket Akgün studied), Hamdi Akman, asked his newly graduated students if they were willing to help construct a new institute at Ortaklar before taking up their teaching posts. Their response was unanimous and next day 200 male and 45 female graduates set off for the railway station with blankets over their shoulders.

That summer was spent in tents at the new site putting up one building after another.

These young men and women had been taught that they were to act not merely as school teachers but as general missionaries of scientific enlightenment and progress – a task that the Institutes had inadequately prepared them for and the social problems they faced would often lead to disillusionment. The spartan regime and relatively remote positioning of the Village Institutes was to prevent the young students from losing all connection with their previous existence and thus becoming unwilling or unable to settle back in the villages. But the result of this system was to teach them about a way of life very different from their own village upbringing, without giving them any first-hand experience of it. They were aware of ideals and values which made some of them despise or despair of the collective ignorance of the villagers, and yet, at the same time, they could have few realistic notions about urban life or about the possibilities of village reform – still less about Western society.

Akpinar Village Institute

entrance to Akpınar Village Institute, Samsun

Young teachers were still members of the village and yet they had lost intimate contact through five years of almost continuous schooling. Their new ways and ideas created tensions and a social barrier between them and the village, they came to symbolise the hostile, ‘outside’. They were of the village and yet not of it.

the great visionary educator İsmail Hakkı Tonguç (in the hat) at a village school with its teacher a graduate of the Village Institute

These teachers faced a dilemma. Either they took their modernising mission seriously, caused offence and faced isolation, or they tried to lead a normal social life, yielding to the conservative pressures of the village community, and living as much like a traditional villager as the job of actually teaching the children allowed. Their difficulties are graphically portrayed by one of them, Mahmut Makal, who wrote a series of books, the first of which, bizim-koyBizim Köy (published in 1950 and translated as A Village In Anatolia when he was just 19 years oldremains Turkey’s best selling book ever. It is a testament to the abject poverty suffered by many Anatolian villagers in the middle of the 20th century. It is also a testament to the subversive power of education; for once people realise that they are being exploited by others, that poverty and destitution are not the ‘will of Allah/God’, and that there is no reward in the next life, then they are very likely to turn and bite the hand or arse of their exploiters. Mahmut Makal was part of a group that became known as the Village Institute Authors who shocked and dismayed the elite establishment and the conservatively religious alike. Radicalised by educational enlightenment and the desperate poverty of village life, it was not surprising that progressive political ideas caught on.

Mahmut Makal and his father

Mahmut Makal and his father taken the day before he left to join the Village Institute

Mahmut makal 1960

Mahmut Makal (BBC archive photo) 1960

Alarm bells rang within the establishment and an unlikely alliance between the religious conservatives who hated the secular co-educational teaching and the political and business elite who hated the idea of educated peasants capable of answering back and defending their rights joined to become a formidable reactionary force. The Institutes and those who advocated them were branded as communists in the age of virulent anti-communism, their reputations were smeared and they faced harassment, suspension and imprisonment. Even that great visionary, İsmail Hakkı Tonguç, was hounded out in 1953 and in 1954 the Village Institutes, one of the greatest experiments in modern education and social engineering, were no more.

Gölköy-Köy-Enstitüsü girls

from here

. . to here

The dream of Atatürk, İsmail Hakkı Tonguç, Mahmut Makal and many others of a secular education, based on the foundations of inquiry, science and rationality that is free and democratic has not been totally suppressed. There now exists Çağdaş Eğitim Vakfı (Contemporary Education Foundation) established in 1994 that promotes many of the same values from which the Village Institutes evolved.

making bricks to make buildings

Marx understood clearly that real revolution (as opposed to bloody revolution) takes place in the minds of men and women when they become truly educated and truly understand the state of the world in which we all live. Men and women struggling to feed their bellies are in no condition to feed their minds, much less struggle to improve the condition of their lives. The threat that an educated population represents to the ruling elite has clearly been recognised by the powers-that-be. Throughout the ‘developed’ Western world governments are in the process of dumbing down the general population, restricting access to quality education by under investment in the state system and a pricing policy that divides the ‘haves’ from the ‘have nots’.

music student

the arts were an vital aspect of broadening young minds to the wider world

When we compare the potential contribution of an uneducated Mahmut Makal, and countless others like him around the world, with his concrete achievements after his ‘enlightenment’, I would argue that denial of education is a crime of such enormity that is on a par with genocide. Condemning human beings, every one of whom has potential beyond their imagination, to life imprisonment in a cell of ignorance for the misfortune of being born on the ‘wrong’ side of the tracks is a Crime Against Humanity!

agricultural skills

learning improved agricultural skills as well as feeding themselves

enstitü fotosu

the high standards reached by students were taken back to their villages

Inonu, Yucel, TongucPrime Minister İsmet İnönü, Hasan-Ali Yücel (Education Minister) and İsmail Hakkı Tonguç (Director of Village Institute Program) listen intently to a student

orchestra

Village Institute orchestra

dramaeven drama was taught and shows taken to villages

I hope you have enjoyed reading and learning about the village institutes as much as I have enjoyed learning and writing about them.  Like the proverbial ‘Candles In The Wind’ young minds need to be nurtured and nourished – the symbol of education is a blazing beacon of enlightenment and in the winds of change presently blowing through the world it is beginning to gutter – it needs protecting.

Alan Fenn, Okçular Köyü

Candles In The Wind

16 thoughts on “Candles In The Wind

  1. Alan, What a wonderful, wonderful article. As you know, we were encouraged to go to an exhibit here in Istanbul concerning the Village Institutes by J and we were not only very surprised by this bit of Turkish history that we knew nothing of, but we were puzzled because at the end of the exhibit, the text just said that the Institutes were closed with no explanation of why! Of course, what you explain makes perfect sense – educated peasants were a deadly threat to those elites that arose in the wake of Ataturk’s death. We will definitely read Mahmut Makal’s book – it sounds fascinating. Thanks for the very detailed, great article with wonderful photos as well.

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  2. . . so pleased that you enjoyed the post – there is so much more to tell but space (and attention spans) are limited. There is a wealth of general and academic writings to be discovered on and off line. My copy of Makal’s book ‘Village in Anatolia’ is a merging of his original work with ‘From My Village’ in English. I obtained it via abebooks.co.uk from a US bookseller where it was considerably cheaper than anything from Europe. If you have any difficulties let me know and I’ll lend it to you. Google around and there are a number of university and vakıf photo archives to be found. The sellers of old book/postcard in Istanbul could be a rich source. Thank you for your enthusiastic comments, I really do appreciate them.

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  3. Tony Taylor says:

    “I promise you free education for all!”
    Some time later…..
    “Hold on, the natives are getting restless!”

    This tragedy unfolds too often. A fascinating and thought provoking article, many thanks, much appreciated.

    1. Hi Christine, first off – welcome to Archers! I assume you are referring to ‘A Village in Anatolia’ – I use ‘Abebooks’ for pretty much all of my book needs (there’s a link at the bottom of this page). You’ll find, as I did that copies in English are only available from booksellers in US/Canada/Germany – if you search by cheapest it should be available for about 8 UK Pounds incl shipping.

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